Friday, April 26, 2024

महर्षि दयानन्द की हितकारी शिक्षाएं

 महर्षि दयानन्द की हितकारी शिक्षाएं

1. मनुष्यों को चाहिए कि जितना अपना जीवन शरीर, प्राण, अन्तःकरण, दशों इन्द्रियाँ और सब से उत्तम सामग्री हो उसको यज्ञ के लिये समर्पित करें जिससे पापरहित कृत्यकृत्य होके परमात्मा को प्राप्त (योग से) होकर इस जन्म और द्वितीय जन्म में सुख को प्राप्त हों।

-महर्षि दयानन्द (यजु० 22/33)

2. जैसे प्रत्येक ब्रह्माण्ड में सूर्य प्रकाशमान है, वैसे सर्वजगत में परमात्मा प्रकाशमान है। जो योगाभ्यास से उस अन्तर्यामी परमेश्वर को अपने आत्मा से युक्त करते हैं, वे सब ओर से प्रकाश को प्राप्त होते हैं।

-महर्षि दयानन्द (यजु० 23/5)

3. जैसे सब जीवों के प्रति ईश्वर उपदेश करता है कि मैं कार्य्य कारणात्मक जगत में व्याप्त हूँ। मेरे विना एक परमाणु भी अव्याप्त नहीं है। सो मैं जहां जगत नही है वहां भी अनन्त स्वरूप से परिपूर्ण हूँ। जो इस अतिविस्तारयुक्त जगत को आप लोग देखते हैं सो यह मेरे आगे अणुमात्र भी नहीं है इस बात को कैसे ही विद्वान सब को जनावें।

-महर्षि दयानन्द (यजु० 23/50)

4. सब मनुष्यों को परमेश्वर के विज्ञान और विद्वानों के संग से बहुत बुद्धियों को प्राप्त होकर सब ओर से धर्म का आचरण कर नित्य सब की रक्षा करने वाले होना चाहिए।

-महर्षि दयानन्द (यजु० 25/14)

5. सब विद्वान लोग सब मनुष्यों के प्रति ऐसा उपदेश करें कि जिस सर्वशक्तिमान निराकार सर्वत्र व्यापक परमेश्वर की उपासना (योग) हम लोग करें तथा उसी को सुख और ऐश्वर्य को बढ़ाने वाला जानें, उसी की उपासना तुम भी करो और उसी को सब की उन्नति करने वाला जानो।

-महर्षि दयानन्द (यजु० 25/18)

6. जो मनुष्य पर्वतों के निकट और नदियों के सङ्गम में योगाभ्यास से ईश्वर की और विचार से विद्या की उपासना करें वह उत्तम बुद्धि वा कर्म से युक्त विचारशील बुद्धिमान होता है।

-महर्षि दयानन्द (यजु० 26/15)

7. जैसे विद्वान् लोग ब्रह्म को स्वीकार करके आनन्द मङ्गल को प्राप्त होते और दोषों को निर्मूल नष्ट कर देते हैं वैसे जिज्ञासु लोग ब्रह्मवेत्ता विद्वानों को प्राप्त होके आनन्द मङ्गल का आचरण करते हुए बुरे स्वभावों के मूल नष्ट करें और आलस्य को छोड़ के विद्या की उन्नति किया करें।

-महर्षि दयानन्द (यजु० 27/3)

The Prayer

The Prayer

Author Swami Dharmanand (Dharamdev Vidyamartand)
Reproduced by Dr. Vivek Arya

ओ३म् वयं जयेम त्वया युजावृतमस्माकमं शुमुदवा भरे भरे । अस्मभ्यमिन्द्रम वरिवः सुगं कृषि प्रणत्रणांमघवन् वृपण्यारुजा । (1-102-04)

हि॒र॒ण्मये॑न॒ पात्रे॑ण स॒त्यस्यापि॑हितं॒ मुखम्। यो॒ऽसावा॑दि॒त्ये पु॑रुषः॒ सो᳕ऽसाव॒हम्। ओ३म् खं ब्रह्म॑ ॥।(यजु० 40/17)

O! Omniscient, Omnipotent and Omnipresent Lord of all Creation! It is only through your grace that we can understand, that we cannot get on as we should in this world, which is now full of chaos, without going hand in hand with you. It is only then that we can succeed In our attempts, but, O Lord! let us remember that you will never bestow your help in our unrighteous attempts; we come across a lot of obstacles in our way through this life and with your Grace we can overcome them in no time.

O! Lord! our minds our perplexed mainly because we have a thirst for gold, and how- ever often you might have warned us against it, we have not heeded your warning. Let us realize now at least, through your grace, which is endless, O Lord! that the wealth of the world is yours and yours only. We are only custodians thereof to distribute it among our brethren as per your command. We pray again prompt by your Grace so that we may obey you and bring peace in the world namely―

Peace in the individual, peace in the country and peace in the largest world.


The heart of Bharat is made of Universal love, and love for universal peace-Bharat's culture which is based on the Vedas and Vedas alone, considers the universe or the world as the biggest family. God, the Almighty is the father and the congregation of men, women and children are His sons and daughters or otherwise called the Aryas. In each Aryan family, we find men, women and children even to this day reciting daily during the morning and evening, prayers (Sandhya) during the recital of the Vedic or Upanishad mantras, the words, "Om, Shanti, Shanti, Shanti" i.e. O Lord! confer peace on the Individual, on the society (or the country) and in the whole world. This sort of recital has become their second nature, so that we can say that peace is flowing through the very blood in their Veins, so, if at all, it is only Bharat that can offer peace to the world the Vedas, because the Vedas are the very foundation of Bharat's hoary culture. Remove the Vedas, there is no cultural edifice of Bharat. This a fact as will be shown in the succeeding pages in a very condensed form as the space is limited.

The condition of the world as it is now, is brought about by mere industrialization or frank materialism and long before now, many eminent writers and scientists of the west also prophesied that this world would be going head long down the path of ruin, if they merely followed the path of industrialism, capitalism and naturalistic culture. For example a great philosopher of Germany Euckenby name, in his book "shall we become Christians", says "outward greatness with inward pettiness, and wealth and diversity of achievements with hollow emptiness of spirits"-Such is the mark of merely naturalistic culture.

The great scientist Professor Huxley of England said, "Even the best of modern civilization appears to me to exhibit a condition of mankind which neither embodies any working ideal, nor even possesses the merit of stability. If there is no hope of large improvement of the condition of the greater part of the human family, I should hail the advent of some kindly comet which would sweep the whole affairs away as a desirable consummation (People of the Aayas-by Jack, London-P. 915).

A great number of such opinions may be quoted to show the failure of this rank materialistic civilization of the West to bring about peace in the world-but space does not allow. I shall quote only one more opinion of a great man of India, Dr. James H. Cousins, the famous artist and poet; He says in his "Path to peace" "such is the ideal civilization of the Vedic India, which has seen the rise and fall of succession of Empires, and it is, because it holds for humanity indications towards salvation, that Europe today in her search for a saner and surer attitude of life and humanity, than that which has brought her to the brink of ruin, is turning towards India."

The civilisation that spring up from the Vedic genius which articulated and was conscious many centuries before the present era, being International, was syntactical, therefore inclusive, (on this Vedic ideal alone) with its inclusiveness which absorbs and annihilates the causes of antagonism with its sympathy, which burns hatred away from itself, (on this ideal alone) it is possible to rear a new earth on the image and likeness of the external heavens."

Now after this short preambles we shall proceed to substantiate the statements mentioned above.

What is World?

We all use the word world in our talks-but what is it? Let us clearly understand it, because without understanding the real import of this word it is not possible to realise the truth of the statement in the subsequent pages-The world is not merely the earth with all its mountain, hills and dales and rivers etc. Without the people it cannot be called a world. So the world is a congregation of people on the earth. If so, a family a society, etc. which are congregation of people are also worlds. Certainly an individual is himself an miniature world a family is a small world. A society is a bigger congregation and, it is bigger world or a bigger family, and what we all mean generally when we use the word world, is the biggest congregation (or world in the superlative degree) of men, women and children or the biggest family. If we remember this, that the world is the biggest family, we can tightly understand this essay.

How did the World Come to Exist?

First of all the biggest world with all its components parts came into existence without the human part. But how? seeing the wonderfulness and the laws that exist in this world, apart from the congregation of men, women, and children, i.e. its components it is impossible to decide that it existed of its own accord. Leave aside the Logic and Darshanas of Bharat, the Western Philosophy and Science also tell us that our observation of the laws that exist in this wonderful world, presupposes that there should be an All-wise, All powerful, Agent or Creator, without whose intervention, the inert matter-as exposed by the great scientist Newton could not have transferred itself into the wonderful form that we see now. So this Agent or Creator we call God also. He also created men and women like other plant life etc. and created laws for future progeny.

In the very beginning after God's creation of complete Nature (Cosmos), he created multitude of men and women in their full bloom of youth and all these at the same moment by his wonderful power of being Omniscient and Omnipotent and this creation is called the Amaithuni Srisht .i.e. the creation without the combination of men and women. After that the laws of procreation came into existence. How could this be possible? Now as a proof see this illustration. Next to a rainy day, when the atmosphere becomes damp and warm. You see thousands of winged insects coming into being all of a sudden. How did this happen? By God's Law. The bodies of the insects that were created, which are of the same elements, such as either, Air (Vaayu), fire, water and earth, just like those of men and women, came into existence, all of a sudden. It is beyond man's power to do it. Again see another example. Put some cow dung in a corner and let it lie for a number of days, you will see after that scorpion coming out of it. Did any one sow the seed of scorpion ?,No. It is Gods' power and Law. Due to the atmospheric temperature etc, it was created. So also, in the very beginning. when after the complete creation of the Nature (Cosmo) suitable for man's comfortable living with all the Natural's equipment's, Gods law came into existence, and multitude of men and women were born out of his Omniscient power etc. Then the law of procreation came into existence. For instance when a society has to be started, one man chooses a number of men forming an original body and then forms laws, rules etc. for the working of the society. So also, men and women were created all of a sudden by the Almighty and then the law of procreation etc. takes effect. Then the rules for the working of the society of country etc. etc. were given out in the Vedas for the guidance of this congregation of people.

The Vedas and their Nature

Now what are these Vedas? We shall see; this is the next point for consideration after the enunciation of the different worlds and understanding how these words came into existence.

When men and women were created? How should they get on in the world? Without work they cannot live: for life means work. Eating, talking, sleeping etc. and every bit of man's life cannot be fulfilled without work and the work requires knowledge; for thought precedes action and where could this thought come from? No doubt men and women have some original natural knowledge but this is not enough for the various works that exist in the world. It has been observed by various experiments that the natural knowledge possessed in the beginning cannot be developed without the help of external coaching, because man is like an electric storage battery with a certain limited power; and when it is exhausted by use, this power must be replenished by being charged with external power of a Dynamo. This Dynamo is the Lord of creation. For there was none else who had the capacity to coach man with full knowledge for his required work, so that the individual, the family, the society, and the biggest world could get on to move about and work peacefully and happily and have relationship of one kind or other with one another in his works in the congregation. Without this primary external coaching man can never get on with his own limited and in complete knowledge. If that were so .i.e. if he could have got on without external coaching, there could never have been any need for teachers and preceptors in the world at all. So, in the very beginning of Lords' Creation man should certainly have been bestowed with a complete Primary external knowledge by God which could contain all the nuclei of knowledge for all the developments later on. God would have been unjust and unkind otherwise. So God is the primary teacher and His primary teachings as explained above is called the Veda and this word Veda really means knowledge (as derived by Sanskrit roots) or Science, for the word Science also is derived from the Latin root seis to know.

When men and women were created

This knowledge come first of all, from the Divine, All-wise, All-powerful Being having been prompted through the mind of the four great seers or Rishis name Agni, Vaayu, Aditya and Angiras, who were fit to grasp the induction or the revelation as it is called, and who spread it later on among the ordinary people-

Now, notice the structure of the Sanskrit word Veda. It contain three letters v.e.d. and each has got a meaning, (as is in Sanskrit language). There is no alphabet without any independent import. So v. means Benediction, happiness etc, e. means Eswara or the Lord, d. means to give. So all the letters put together mean, the Lord who is all Blow give the mankind, wealth, happiness and Blesses through this knowledge which is called the Veda. The internal authority of the Rig Vedas as exposed through the Ist mantra of the 71 Sukta of the tenth Mandal, means-"Let all intelligent people know that at the beginning of creation along with men, the word of the Lord i.e. the Veda, the root of all learning and knowledge, that which gave the names of all the things in this creation, which every learned man expresses, which is the best (nothing better) which is common to all the worlds, (plural denotes the different worlds, individual, family, society and the biggest world as already defined) comes to light through the Divine Wisdom, the Omniscient having prompted or revealed them through the great and learned souls, the Rishis, and that which kills all antagonism, and establishes peace and happiness every where.

There is no space here now to express all the opinions of even the Western learned men about the greatness of this Revelation the relation the Veda-one example is quite enough as a sample-even the professor Maxmuller renounced for the tirade against the Vedas interpreting them in all possible ways to bring down their greatness, had at last to accept these as a Revelation. We says-"If there is a God who has created heaven and earth, it will be in- just on his part if He deprives millions of souls born before Moses, of His Divine knowledge: reason and comparative study of Religious, declare that God gives His Divine knowledge to mankind from his first appearance on the Earth (Science and Religion).

This knowledge came first of all from Divine all powerful All wise, Being, having been prompted through the minds of the four great seers or Rishis who were fit to grasp the inducement and who spread it later on.

What is Peace?

Absence of war is not peace; because even without war there can be peacelessness and war in the world is inevitable. This world contains both good and evil; and there is always war or strife between them. To annihilate, ignorance injustice and war, it is quite necessary that there should be strife between knowledge, justice and plenty respectively, The Vedas declare that good things denote Indra and evil ones are Vitra and there is always eternal was believe them. The Bhagavad Gita is a living example. Then what is Peace? Peace is that condition in which all the limbs and senses that go to form the individual world, the family world, the social world and the biggest world are quite sound and healthy and perform their functions harmoniously so that the internal agitation is nil, even though there is strife out- side, so that all the above mentioned worlds may proceed without any hindrance to attain their ordained goal.

The Way to Attain this Peace

The Vedas declare that the only way to attain this sort of peace is to become Aryas or true sons and daughters of the Almighty who is one and one only for all the three world. The Vedas declare -- इन्द्रं॒ वर्ध॑न्तो अ॒प्तुर॑: कृ॒ण्वन्तो॒ विश्व॒मार्य॑म् । अ॒प॒घ्नन्तो॒ अरा॑व्णः ॥-ऋग्वेद 9/63/5

Set aside all laziness and develop your souls by prayer to God and obeying his behests in every way. This starts first of all in the individual world-then spreads in the family world, in the social world and the largest world. There is no other method. The individual is the unit. Save the unit and the whole will be saved. The influx must flow from the centre to circumference. Then only the whole body will be healthy. The individual is the centre keep this world healthy, every other world will follow suit. This is the Vedic method and it must be adopted. Otherwise there will be chaos in all the worlds mentioned above. In the Vedic period this was the method adopted and there was real peace all over.

The Soul and the Limbs of the Body.

The Vedas declare—यत्र॒ ब्रह्म॑ च क्ष॒त्रं च॑ स॒म्यञ्चौ॒ चर॑तः स॒ह। तं लो॒कं पुण्यं॒ प्रज्ञे॑षं॒ यत्र॑ दे॒वाः स॒हाग्निना॑ ॥-यजुर्वेद 20/25

This means that there should be co-ordination and cooperation between the soul and the limbs of the body. In the individual world the soul strength should predominate and the mind, that vital force or prana should co-operate. In the family world the master is the soul, the mistress the mind and children are limbs. There must be cooperation here too. In the social world the division of labour or the Varnashrama Dharma as it is called, is the soul i.e. that part of the society that has brains and knowledge that could destroy ignorance, that part of the society that could eradicate injustice and that part of the society that could do away with want should cooperate with one another. The communism, which is a menace to peace will disappear. This applies, all over the biggest world; where this cooperation will spread.

The Education

Unless the soul is trained in the above manner, there will not be peace any where. For this, proper education is most needed. The Vedas say— पा॒व॒का नः॒ सर॑स्वती॒ वाजे॑भिर्वा॒जिनी॑वती। य॒ज्ञं व॑ष्टु धि॒याव॑सुः॥- ऋग्वेद 1/3/10 .i.e. the education given to the unit, or the centre should be on these lines:

(1) Pavika-It must develop the sacredness of the soul, speech and action.
(2) (Vaajebhih): It should be a means of substance without penury and want.
(3) (Vaajincevatti) It should develop science in the right way.
(4) (Yajaam Vashtu): It should develop the knowledge and faith in the Creator who is All-pervading.
(5) (Dhiyaa) It should develop the mind and intelligence and other senses.
(6) It should be no means of increasing the wealth of the country by righteous means and should teach men to spend it for the good of the society, country and the entire world.

Religion and Politics

There should not be separated. They should so hand in hand. The Vedas declare -

शु॒नं हु॑वेम म॒घवा॑न॒मिन्द्र॑म॒स्मिन्भरे॒ नृत॑मं॒ वाज॑सातौ। शृ॒ण्वन्त॑मु॒ग्रमू॒तये॑ स॒मत्सु॒ घ्नन्तं॑ वृ॒त्राणि॑ सं॒जितं॒ धना॑नाम्॥
(Rig 3.38.10)

The subject matter dealt with in this mantra is Indra or the duties of a king in other words Politics. What are the duties? The king is the personification, as it were, of the laws governing the country and this is of course politics. The mantra instructs that the government or the king should be, so that say, the personification of righteousness and divine qualities. Indra means a king representing politics. He must protect Dharma or Righteousness in every thing. Then only the country will be peaceful and happy because otherwise there will be chaos as it is now. Dharma is now-a-days interpreted as religion which should not be.

Common Wealth or Chakravarthy Rajya

All the countries in the world should behave righteously and co-operate with one another as if they are the limbs of the great family. If each country behaves righteously the whole world would be righteous. Chankya or Kautilya who has written the famous Arthshastra or the economics which is the foundation of a good government of a country says, sukhasya mul dharma; i.e. the foundation of peace and happiness is Dharma or Righteousness.

Eschewing Thirst for Gold

Last but not the least injunction of the Vedas to bring peace in all the worlds mentioned above is the giving up of thirst for gold. This thirst is the bane of the present day worlds. The Vedas declare unequivocally that this thirst destroys an individual, a family, a country and the whole world. ‘Apamik prakarne yasyadudhren' the whole wealth belongs to the Lord of creation and it is for the good of the whole world and is the common property. It must flow like a river and should not be accumulated, or when it is distributed it should not be done without strings of selfishness attached. This is the key to the peace of the worlds that the Vedas give us.

Thus, in a very concise manner the ways of peace have been dealt with as enjoined by the Vedas which are the Divine words. If they are not needed peace is a dream. A reflective thought by all learned and great men of the world on these facts mentioned in the essay and the implementation thereof are the only things required. Thus the world- peace could be obtained only through the spread of the Vedas or pure Vedic culture, the Vedas are the only rays of hope for the peace less worlds. May God help us to from this idea and action in the minds of all men?

Om Shanti Shanti Shanti.

Pre-Dayanada and Post-Dayananda period of interpretation: SAYANA-DAYANANDA-AUROBINDO

Pre-Dayanada and Post-Dayananda period of interpretation: SAYANA-DAYANANDA-AUROBINDO

Author Dr. Swami Satya Prakash

Reproduced by Dr. Vivek Arya

Aurobindo presents the problem of the Vedic interpretation in the following words: "We have in the Rigveda,-the true and the only Veda in the estimation of European scholars, a body of sacrificial hymns couched in a very ancient language which presents a number of almost insoluble difficulties. It is full of ancient forms and words which do not appear in later speech and have often to be fixed in some doubtful sense by intelligent conjecture; a mass even of the words that it has in common with classical Sanskrit seem to bear or at least to admit another significance than in the later literary tongue; and a multitude of its vocables, especially the most common, those which are most vital to the sense, are capable of a surprising number of unconnected significance's, which may give according to our preference in selection, quite different complexions to whole passages, whole hymns, and even to the whole thought of the Veda," [The Secret of the Veda, Centenary Edition Vol. x. p. 2]

During the past several centuries, there have been at least three types of major attempts to fix the sense of these ancient litanies:

(i) The first of these attempts exists only by fragments in the Brāhmaṇas and the Upanisads, (ii) An interpretation almost in the same strain has been followed by another Indian scholar Sayanṇa-this is the traditional ritualistic interpretation of the Vedic texts, as if the entire text of the Rigveda (and the Yajurveda other too), was meant to be used for one or the other purpose in sacrifices. (iii)Lastly, we have another mode of interpretation which has been introduced. by modern Western scholarship (European and American), based on comparisons and conjectures, i. e. claimed to be based on the comparative philology, and systematic study of human behaviors through ages in different lands.

In respect to the traditional ritualistic interpretation, and the conjectural Western interpretations, Aurobindo rightly remarks as follows:

"Both of them present one characteristic in common, the extraordinary incoherence and poverty of sense, which their results stamp upon the ancient hymns. The separate lines can be given, whether naturally or by force of conjecture, a good sense, or a sense that hangs together; the diction that results, if garish in style, if loaded with otiose and decorative epithets, if developing extraordinarily little of meaning in an amazing mass of gaudy figure and verbiage, can be made to run into intelligible sentences; but when we come to read the hymns as a whole, we seem to be in the presence of men who, unlike the earlier writers of other races were incapable of coherent and natural expression or of connected thought. Except in the briefer and simpler hymns the language tends to be either obscure or artificial; the thoughts are either unconnected or have to be forced and beaten by the interpreter into a whole. The scholar in dealing with his text is obliged to substitute for interpretation a process almost of fabrication. We feel that he is not so much revealing the sense as hammering and forging rebellious material into some sort of shape and consistency." (Vol. X. p. 3)

These observations of Aurobindo are valid in regards to the interpretations given by either Sayana or by our Western scholars like Max Muller, Geldner, Oldenberg, Griffith or Wilson. If these interpretations are accepted, then the hymns of the Rigveda (and other Vedas) would be justifiably qualified by such terms as "obscure and barbarous compositions". But one thing is exceptionally remarkable. These so called obscure and barbarous composition have had the most splendid good fortune in all literary history. They have been the reputed source not only of some of the world's richest and profoundest religions, but of some its subtlest metaphysical philosophies. In the fixed tradition of thousand of years they have been revered as the origin and standard of all that can be held as authoritative and true in Brahmanas, Upanishads, in the Six Systems of Indian philosophy, and even in the later and medieval literature of Indian thought. They have been invariably regarded as the literature of ultimate Supreme Authority (Svataḥ Pramāņa). They have inspired the teaching of all saints, seers and sages. The name borne by them has been the Veda, the knowledge, a term which stands for the highest spiritual truth of which the human mind is capable. But, as Aurobindo rightly remarks- if we accept the current interpretations, whether Sayanas or the modern theory, the whole of this sublime and sacred reputation is a colossal fiction. If we accept the traditional or Western interpretations, the hymns would be nothing more than the näive superstitions fancies of untaught and materialistic barbarians concerned only with the most external gains and enjoyments and ignorant of all but the most elementary moral notions and religious aspirations. Of course. rituals have some value in life but the entire Vedic texts have nothing else in them but rituals is an idea repugnant to any rational thought. As we have said, the Vedas were held in the highest esteem by all the Systems of Indian Philosophy, particularly of the Upanishads, and it is so well known that the true foundation or starting point of religions and philosophies are these Upanishads, and if so, if the Vedas are to be traditionally interpreted, then these Upanishads have to be conceived as a revolt of philosophical and speculative minds against the ritualistic materialism of the Vedas. The entire Vedānta, the Yoga, the Samkhya, the Nyaya or the Vaisesika system can be directly traced to elaborate the theses propounded in the Vedic texts.

The European' scholars have confuses issues beyond expectations. Aurobindo writes in this context: "But this conception, supported by misleading European parallels, really explains nothing. Such profound and ultimate thoughts, such systems of subtle and elaborate psychology as are found in the substance of the Upanishads, do not spring out of a previous void. The human mind in its progress marches from knowledge to knowledge, or it renews and enlarges previous knowledge that has been obscured and overlaid, or it seizes on old imperfect clues and is led by them to new discoveries. The thought of the Upanishads supposes great origins anterior to itself, and these in the original theories are lacking. The hypothesis, invented to fill the gap, that these ideas were borrowed by barbarous Arya invaders from the civilized Dravidian's, is a conjecture, supported only by other conjectures. It is indeed coming to be doubted whether the whole story of an Aryan invasion through the Punjab is not a myth of the philologists. (Vol. X p. 4).

In fact, the Veda has to be seen from another perspective. It is the revelation of an age anterior to our intellectual philosophies. It is Shruti and not a Shastra. In that original epoch, when it was given to us, thought proceeded by methods other than those of our logical reasoning and speech (the accepted modes of expression) which in our present day habits would be inadmissible. The wisest then depended on inner experience and the suggestions of the intuitive complex for all knowledge that ranged beyond mankind's ordinary perceptions and daily activities. Their aim was illumination, as Aurobindo puts it, not logical conviction, their ideal the inspired seer, not the accurate reasoner. The Rishis was not the individual composer of the hymn, but the seer (drasta) of an eternal truth and an impersonal knowledge. The language of the Veda itself in Shruti, a rhythm not composed by the intellect but heard a divine word that came vibrating out of the Infinite to the inner audience of the man who had previously made himself fit for the impersonal knowledge (Aurobindo Vol. X. p. 8.). So speaks- Dayanand about the Vedas, so spoke the older Rishis, and so speaks Aurobindo about the Vedic revelation. The words themselves, draft and śhruti, sight and hearing, are Vedic expressions; these and cognate words signify, in the esoteric terminology of the hymns, revelatory knowledge and the contents of inspiration (Sabda, artha, and the sambandha).

There is a progressive preparedness for the reception of the divine revelation in the hymns themselves so often. Knowledge itself was a travelling and a reaching, or a finding and a winning (as Aurobindo puts it); the revelation of the mysterious comes only at the end, the light was the prize of a final victory. There is continually in the Veda this image of the journey, the Soul's march on the path of Truth. On that path as it advances, it also ascends; new vistas of power and light open to its aspiration; it wins by a heroic effort its enlarged spiritual possessions. If a coherence is to be appreciated in a particular hymn, this type of approach has to be constantly kept in mind. The hymn would by and by raise you from an exoteric to an esoteric realm, A particular verse might be referring to mundane fire for the time being, but by and by it would raise you to the realm of the cosmic Fire and then finally take you to the Inner Fire, the Divine Warmth, which is the secret of life. And similarly, a casual reference to ordinary broad day light or the light appearing every day at dawn, may take you through a series of successive steps to the cosmic light and finally to the Inner Spiritual Light of one's own consciousness or even the Divine light of the supreme self.

If one gets familiarized with this technique of the Soul's march on the path of Truth, then to him, the Veda would neither be a collection of verses, being an attempt to set down the results of intellectual or imaginative speculation, nor would they consist of the dogmas of a primitive religion.

The Vedas were revealed to the earliest man, and since then, they were traditionally handed down to posterity with utmost care in accuracy. It is difficult to say when they were for the first time classified into the details of the Samhitas. But there are certain considerations which justify us in ascribing to it an almost enormous antiquity. An accurate text, accurate in every syllable, accurate in every accent, was a matter of supreme importance to the Vedic ritualists; for on scrupulous accuracy depended the effectuality of the sacrifice. We are told, for instance, in the Brahmanas the story of Tvasta, who, performing a sacrifice to produce an avenger of his son slain by Indra, produced, owing to an error of accentuation, not a slayer of Indra, but one of whom Indra must be the slayer (Indra-Stara). The prodigious accuracy of the ancient Indian memory is also notorious and proverbial. And the sanctity of the text prevented such interpolations, alterations, modernizing revisions as have replaced by the present form of the Mahabharata, the ancient epic of the Kurus.

The ancients were not satisfied with the Samhita pathas of the Vedic verses in which the rigid rules of euphonic combination of separate words (Sandhi) were applied. The Vedic Rishis, as was natural in a living speech, followed the ear rather than fixed rule; sometimes they left them uncombined. And therefore, they have not only retained with accuracy the Samhita- combined the separate works, sometimes they pathash, but the Pada-pathas also with proper accentuation. In these Pada-pathas, all euphonic combinations are again resolved into the original and separate words and even components of compound words indicated.

A few illustrations of the Samhita and the Pada-pätha for the same Rigvedic mantra are given below:

1. Samhitāpāṭha

अग्निमीळे पुरोहितं यज्ञस्यं देवमृत्विजम् होतारं रधातमम् । (with accents)

Agnimle purohitam yajñasya devamṛ tvijam; hotāram ratnadhatamam. (without accents)


अग्निम्। ईले। पुराऽहितम् । यज्ञस्यं । देवम् ऋत्विजेम् । होतारम् । रत्न ऽध्धातमम् || (with accents)

Agnim ile purah' hitam yajiiasyn devam ṛtvijam hotāram ratna' dhatamam. (without accents)

(These pada-pathas would be a help in proper ghana-päthas, māte päthas, jatā pathes, etc.), besides the interpretations depending on accents too.)

Coherence in the Vedic hymns.

"We can thus entirely reply on the Vedic texts available to us today. In the form of the Pada-pätha. Very few are the instances in which the exactness or the sound judgment of the Pada-patha can be called into question. "We have then", as Aurobindo says, "as our basis a text which we can confidently accept and which, even if we hold it in a few instances doubtful or defective, does not at any rate call for that often licentious labour of emendation to which some of the European classics lend themselves." Aurobindo further says, "Nor is there, in my view, any good reason to doubt that we have the hymns arrayed, for the most part in the right order of their verses, and in their exact entirety. The exceptions if they exist are negligible in number and importance. When the hymns seem to us incoherent, it is because we do not understand them. Once the clue is found, we discover that they are perfect wholes as admirable in the structure of their thought as in their language and their rhythms." Vol. X p. 16.

Natural meanings of Vedic terms.

"The only literature of the closest proximity to the revealed Vedic texts, is of the Brahmanas and the Aranakas; and both of them belong to the ritualistic period. Perhaps, there must have been a gap of millenniums between the dawn of the Vedic knowledge, and the liturgical books of the Brahmanic period. And therefore, Aurobindo is right when he says, that "for even in the earlier days of classical erudition, the ritualistic view of the Veda was already dominant, the original sense of the words, the lines, the allusions, the clue to the structure of the thought had been long lost or obscured; nor was there in the erudite that intuition or that spiritual experience which might have partly recovered the lost secret. In such a field, mere learning, especially when it is accompanied by an ingenious scholastic mind, is often a snare as a guide". (Vol. X. 16-17).

There has been a great contribution of the people of the ritualistic period, in that they preserved the Vedic texts with great care, but on the contrary, the greatest disservice they did was that they obscured the natural meanings of the Vedic texts. The mantras were held sacred by them, but the real meanings were lost of them. And therefore, for the last so many centuries, the Vedas ceased to have any dynamic impact on the life of an individual or on society. Thanks to the insight and inspirations of Dayanand at the close of the Nineteenth Century, followed by spiritual experiences of another great servant of the present century, Sri Aurobindo, there has been a complete metamorphosis of our thinking and evaluation of the Vedic texts. The greatest contribution of these two great sons of the soil has been the emancipation of the Vedic interpretations from the tragic hands of ritualistic periods and medieval scholists.

Maxmuller and other scholars of the West labored hard on the Vedic texts, not only as pure academicians, but they were also sure, that if they could show to Indian people how meaningless and debaseful the concepts of their own Vedic scholists were, their future generation, more enlightened on account of the advances of modern philosophy and sciences, would refuse to accept the Vedas and the Vedic theology as their solace.[i]

The great sage Yäska compiled one of the earliest lexicons of the Vedic terms, known as the Nighantu, and he wrote his own commentary on this book, known as the Nirukta. The Nighantu constitutes one of the six Vedängas, the others being the Siksha (orthography) by Panini, Chanda (prosody) Pangala, Jyotish (astronomy) by Vaistha etc., Vyakarana (Grammar) by Panini, and Kalpa (Litany and Liturgy) by various scholars of the ritualistic year. The study of these Vedāngas is supposed to be very essential if one wishes to arrive at the correct interpretation of the Vedic texts. But no academic knowledge of our rigorous scholarly disciplines can be a substitute of inspirations and personal experiences, of a highly elevated self. The seers of the Upanishads, could, therefore, reveal the mysteries of the Vedic texts much more than any other academician. We are fortunate in this respect that persons of the eminence of Panini (the celebrated author of the Astádhyâyi) and his commentator, Patanjali (the author of the Mahabhashya were not only academicians but were also inspired seers of deep experiences, and so were the authors of the six systems of Indian Philosophy.

Every great interpreter of the Vedic texts has taken help from Yaska, the lexicographer and the etymologist, and also from the derivations given in the Brāhmaṇas, in the Unādikosa, in the Prätisakhyas, and from Pāniņi's grammar as well as from the Mahābhāṣya. All these books accept the principle of the multiplicity of the Vedic interpretations, the interpretations belonging to three major categories! (i) the historical, or Sāśvata Itihāsa, the natural perpetual cosmological history, (ii) the ritualistic, pertaining to the Yajnas, and (iii) the spiritual or the mystic with deeper inner meanings. Dayānand has added one more category to it, as would be seen from his commentaries. To Dayanand, the Vedas constitute the living force, both mundane and spiritual. His is the dynamic realistic philosophy of life and compatible with this concept he gets inspirations from the Vedas for all the disciplines of life. To him, the life is real and purposeful and the propriety in mundane life is a step of advancement towards the attainments of the spiritual realm. And therefore, he has declared that the Vedas constitute a store house of all true knowledge for the evolution of man. To him, God is not only a creator of the Universe, living and non-living. He is prime source of all true knowledge also, and therefore, there can never arise a conflict between true sciences, spiritual philosophies, and the right conducts of theological practices. And therefore, the Vedas contain the natural material to inspire us in all the multi disciplines of life. That code alone could be regarded as rightful, which leads to individual and social success in life and to the spiritual attainments of the highest order God Himself is the Highest Personification of an ethical ideal, and this ideal has to be emulated in every sphere of human life, mundane and transcendental.

Of course, Sayana, or as a matter of fact, any other scholists of the period, could not have been inspired with this realism and purposefulness of human life, and therefore, his interpretations, however, masterly, fall short of natural expectations. And, therefore, Aurobindo is correct when he says:

"Yet, even for the external sense of the Veda, it is not possible to follow either Sayana's method or his results without the largest reservation. It is not only that he admits in his method licenses of language and construction which are unnecessary and sometimes incredible, not that he arrives at his results, often, by a surprising inconsistency in his interpretation of common Vedic terms and even of fixed Vedic formulae. These are the defects of detail, unavoidable perhaps in the state of materials with which he had to deal. But it is the central defect of Sayana's system that he is obsessed always by the ritualistic formula and seeks continually to force the sense of the Veda into that narrow mould. So he loses many clues of the greatest suggestiveness and importance for the external sense of the ancient scripture-a problem quite as interesting as its internal sense. The outcome is a representation of the Rishis, their thoughts, their culture, their, their aspirations, so narrow and poverty-stricken that, if accepted, it renders the ancient reverence for the Veda, its sacred authority, its divine reputation quite incomprehensible to the reason, or only explicable as a blind and unquestioning tradition of faith starting from an original error”. (Vol. x p. 18).

The errors in Sayana's interpretations are as follows:

(i) Śhruti is known for deep spiritual, philosophic and psychological meanings which ascribe sanctity to the text. Sāyaṇa usally refuses to enter into these depths. He does not go sufficiently beyond the current verbal interpretations. He mentions for instance, but not to admit it, an old interpretation of Vritra as the Coverer (acchadakaḥ, Dayānanda) who holds back from man the objects of his desire and his aspirations. For Sayana, Vṛitra is either simply the enemy or the physical cloud-demon who holds back the water and has to be pierced by the Rain giver.

(ii) Sāyaṇa is led away by the Paurāņic myths and mythological events, as if the mythologies existed prior to the revelation of the texts. He does not go deeper into the root meanings or the etymologies or mystic sense behind these terms. The stories of the Puranas were woven round the Vedic words, capable of natural interpretations, millennium of years afterwards. The Vedas were always held sacred in Indian Society, and the words, used in common parlance, were given as proper names to family children or to the personal figures in literature. The names of the four Rișhis Agni, Vayu, Aditya, and Angiras, and so many other Rişhis associated with the Vedic hymns also belong to this category, not to speak of kings and princes of repute, who came to be so well known in epics and mythologies. A few such instances are quoted below: The modern Vedic scholars, who seek to interpret history on the basis of Vedic texts, have erred a step ahead of Sayana in this respect..

1. Rāmā and Krana in the Atharva-veda:

Naktam jätäsyosadhe Räme-Krsne asikni ca (Av. I, 23.1)

2. Dasaratha in the Rigveda:

Catvāriniśad daśarathasya śoņāḥ ( Rv.1.126.4)

3. Bharata in the Rigveda:

Asadya barhir bharatasya sūnavaḥ (Rv. II, 36.2)

4.Visvamitras in the Rigveda

Visvamitraya dadatmaghāni (Rv. III. 53.7)

Visvamitra arāsota (Rv. III.53/13)

5. Visvamitra and Jamadagni in the Rigveda:

Sute Sätena yadyagamam vam prati visvamitra-jämadagni dame ( Rv.X.167.4)

6. Vena in the Rigveda

Venanti venāḥ patayantyä diśaḥ (Rv. X. 64.2)

Venä duhantyukṣaṇam giriṣṭhām (Rv. IX. 85.10)

Vena Bhargava is the Seer of the Süktas IX. 85 and X. 123, whilst vena is also the devata of X. 123. This vena has been identified with the planet Venus also X. 123.1):

7. Pururavah and Urvasi in the Rigveda

Pururayaḥ punarastam parehi (Rv X. 95.2)

Pra-urvasi tirata dirghamayuḥ (Rv. X. 95.10)

(For Urvasi, also see V. 41.19; IV. 2.18; and X. 95.17)

8. Arjuns in the Rigveda

Ghoşeva Samşam-arjunasya natśc (Rv. I. 122.5)

9. Vasisthas in the Rigveda

Prävadindro brahmaṇā yo vasisthäh (Rv. VII. 33,3)

10. Suśruta in the Rigveda

Yah Karmabhir-mabadbhiḥ Suśruto bhūt (Rv. III. 36.1)

(iii) A third element is the legendary and historic, the stories of old kings and Rişhis, given in the Brahmanas, or by later tradition in explanation of the obscure allusions of the Veda. Sayana's dealings with this clement are marked by some hesitation. Often he accepts them as the right interpretation of the hymns; some. times he gives an alternative sense with which he has evidently more intellectual sympathy, but wavers between the two authorities.

(iv) Ritualistic conceptions dominate over naturalistic interpretations. Not only are there the obvious or the traditional identifications, Indra, the Maruts, the triple Agni, Sürya, Usha, but we find Mitra was identified with Day, Varuna with the Night, Aryaman and Bhaga with the Sun, the Rbhus with its rays. We have here, as Aurobindo remarks, the seeds of that naturalistic theory of the Veda to which European learning has give so wide an extension. The old Indian scholars did not use the same freedom or the same systematic minuteness in their speculations. Still this element in Sayaṇa's commentary is the true parent of the European Science of Comparative Mythology (Vol. x p. 20).

But here again, as Aurobindo remarks, it is the ritualistic conception that pervades; that is the persistent note in which all others lose themselves. In the formula of the philosophic schools, the hymns, even while standing as a supreme authority for knowledge, are yet principally and fundamentally concerned with the karmakāṇḍa, with works, and by works was understood, pre-eminently, the ritualistic observation of the Vedic Sacrifices. Sāyaṇa labours always in the light of this idea. Into this mould, he moulds the language of the Veda, turning the mass of its characteristic words into the ritualistic significance's,-food, priest, giver, wealth, praise, prayer, rite, sacrifice.

Wealth and food;- for it is the most egoistic and materialistic objects that are proposed as the aims of the Sacrifice, possessions, strength, power, children, servants, gold, horses, cows, victory, the slaughter and the plunder of enemies, the destruction of rival and malevolent critic. As one reads and finds hymn after hymn interpreted in this sense, one begins to understand better the apparent inconsistency in the attitude of the Gītā (or the Upanisads) which, regarding always the Veda as divine knowledge (Ģītā XV. 15), yet censures severely the champions of an exclusive Vedism (Gitā II. 42),-all whose flowery teachings were devoted solely to material wealth, power and enjoyment.

It is, as Aurobindo observes, the final and authoritative binding of the Veda to this lowest of all its possible senses that has been the most unfortunate result of Sayaņa's commentary. The dominance of the ritualistic interpretation had already deprived India of the living use of its greatest Scripture and of the true clue to the entire sense of the Upanisads. Sāyaṇas's Commentary put a seal of finality on the old misunderstanding which could not broken for many centuries. (Vol. X p. 20.)

When Dayanand talks of Yajna or karma, he takes a very wide view of life. The Vedic philosophy is a philosophy of plenty, of prosperity and liberality. To Dayanand, yajna is not only the sacrificial ritual; it embraces all the achievements on a social plane to ameliorate the conditions of our worldly living against poverty, miseries, sickness and disease, and in the subsequent stage to assure a better future beyond death even. It is not the ritual that would lead to that goal; it is the hard, honest and sincere devotion in all departments of knowledge, science, technology, philosophy and spirituality-that would assure the fruits of the yajna. The para and aparā vidyās both have to be acquired to meet these ends. Dayanand finds in the Vedas an inspiration for such a life, which strikes a balanced note between the material prosperity and spirituality: vidya and avidya, Jnana and karma, sambhūti and asambhūti, yoga and Samkhya, all taken as complimentary to serve the highest aspirations of our individual and also of the society. Dayanand and Aurobindo both have thus given new interpretation to the Karma.kända, are not the one belonging to the ritualistic period, and which had brought the Divine Vedas to disrepute and ridicule.

Viniyoga or the Ritualistic Application of the Vedic Texts

It has been rightly pointed out by the Vedic scholars, Western and Indian, that between the actual composition of hymns (or the actual revelation of hymns), and the age of the Commentators like Skandasvathi, Venkata Mahadava or Sayana, or even between the revelation and the days Niruktas, grammarian, and lexicographers, or time of the composition of the books like the Taittiriya Samhita (which is of book rather to be placed in the rank of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas, than may be regarded as an independent Veda, the Krsna Yajurveda), so many milleniums must have elapsed that neither the Brahmanas or Aranyakas nor the Niruktas, grammarians and the Commentators and scholists can be regarded as the true interpreters of the Texts; they at the most may be regarded as representing the notions of the times, and the practices of the days, when they were present. In this sense, Sāyaṇa, Mahidhara and others are in no way the representatives of the very old traditions even. Sāyaṇa was born in fourteenth century A. D.; not to speak of the Rajasuya or the Aśvamedha yajñas, even the darsapurnamasa yajna and the somayagas were obsolete in his times and very few rituals, which survived, also got so much mixed up with Pauranic Gods and Goddesses, that they could hardly be regarded as the representative of the Vedic traditions of millennium B.C.

The objective of the Vedic revelation was manifold; to prescribe an eternal code of conduct for man; to show to the man his relationships with his surroundings and with the Creator; to impress upon him the cause of his bondage and to indicate in the broadest terms the way to attain freedom from that bondage; to reveal to the man some of the mysteries of Nature as to give him a start for further explorations; to lead the bonded soul on the path of truth, enlightenment and immortality. All these points may be summed up into three words: Jnana (enlightenment) Karma (duty and action) and Upāsānā (devotion, dedication and love towards God). Man has to be instructed in respect to all these three and hence was the necessity of a special type of revelation to him; he alone has been provided with a characteristic intelligence to explore into the mysteries of the Unknown of inner and external realms, provided he gets initial directions and subsequent encouragements.

Thus it had been the the unique privilege of man that the Shruti was revealed to him at the earliest history, and has been his guide throughout. Man held this Shruti in his highest esteem, and had always regarded it as his privileged sacred lore.

By and by, man's culture grew, and his activities became multifarious. During the course of his social evolution, as demand of his aesthetic sense, he developed rituals, formalities and ceremonies. These rituals were centered round certain dialogues, utterances, invocations. dramatizations, and performations of several types. The old seer was acquainted with the Vedic Mantras, and as his love knew no bounds for God and His Word, the Śhruti, he took out the passages from this Divine Text and associated them with rituals and ceremonies which he held so sacred. The rituals became doubly sacred on account of these associations. This is how the viniyoga of the Mantras in numerous yajnas started millenniums ago.

By viniyoga is meant the recitation of mantra (verse) or its part, taken from the Vedic Samhitas and some other similar texts, along with the operations accompanying rituals and ceremonies. It must be remembered that the texts existed before the currency of the ritual; the text was not composed to be utilized in the rituals, it had its sanctity even otherwise. But since the devotee had high regards for the texts and for the rituals both, he relevantly or even otherwise, got the two associated together. After a long and continuous usage of the text in the ritual, it was natural for people to have perpetuated this association to such an extent that one could not have thought of text without its association with the ritual. Thus in the course of time, we had, in a way, the degradation of the text. The deeper meanings of the texts were forgotten and their association with rituals only survived. This is why we say that Sayana, Mahdhara and other scholists in their commentaries do not give the true meanings of the texts. They merely depict the relation of the text with the ritual.

The viniyogas (ritualistic applications of the texts) are relevant and irrelevant both. Relevant ones are known to possess rupa-samrddhi. The term has been defined in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa as follows:

Etad vai Yajnasya samṛddham yad rūpa-samṛddham karma-kriyamāṇam ṛg-abhivadati (Ait Br. I.1.4)

i.e. if one speaks out such a mantra, in which the operation to be performed in the sacred ritual is described verbally too, this is known as the relevancy of the text (its rupa-samrddhata). They (the invitatory and offering verses) are perfect in form (rüpa-samrddhata, as being addressed to Agni and Visnu; that in the sacrifice is perfect, which is perfect in form, that real which as it is performed the verse describes. (A.B. Keith's translation.)

Unnecessarily, a great emphasis has been laid on this concept of relevaucy or the rūpa-samṛddhatā; usually, it would be seen from the illustrations quoted in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa itself, the relevancy is only verbal or nominal; on the basis of one or two words, occurring in the text, the relevancy is imposed on the verse without looking into the real purport of the text. This is why, the viniyoga has done more harm than actually and material good. Dayanand has been the first man in the history to have taken away the stigma or stink of the viniyoga from the natural meanings of the texts. This has been his great contribution to the Vedic scholarship.

The viniyoga had given altogether a wrong impression about the prose and poetry of the Yajurveda text. This Veda has been rescued from the fetters of the viniyogas by Dayānand. The greater bulk of the Yajurveda, particularly from Chapter I to XVII, and several other chapters, had, it appears, no use other than of their recitation on the occasion of some of the elaborate ceremonials which developed around them, such as: "Darsapaurṇamāsa Yajna (rituals associated with full moon and no moon), Agnihotra (the fire-ritual), Agrayana-işţi (concerned with food), Daksayana yajna (associated with Daksa Prajapati) Chăturmasya yajna (pertaining to the rainy season), Soma Yaga (ritual connected with Soma plant), Vājapeya Yajna (yajna of the Brahmanas concerning food grains), Rajasuya (a yajna of the kṣatriyas concerning the glory of the State), Cayana niripana (details concerning funeral pyres), Ahşvamedha and numerous others. The entire Satapatha Brāhmaṇa (barring the last Upanisadic Chapter the Brihadaranyaka) deals with these details. Of course, occasionally the Satapatha Brahmana also refers to the deeper mystical and philosophical spirit behind the parables and the rituals. The beautiful Sukta of Creation and of Social Order, the so-called the Purusha Sukta has been nicknamed as the Naramedha Chapter (rituals dealing with human sacrifice), when we come to the Commentary of Mahidhara and Uvata (Chapter XXXI).

Allusions to Mental and Supra-Mental Realm

Whilest Dayanand also referred to the mental and supramental realms, whilst commenting on various Vedic mantras in his commentaries and elsewhere, this subject as an exclusive specialization has been taken over by Aurobindo. He poses the problems thus; "Our first duty, therefore, is to determine whether there is, apart from figure and symbol, in the clear language of the hymns a sufficient kernel of psychological notions to justify us in supposing at all a higher than the barbarous and primitive sense of the Veda. And after- wards, we have to find, as far as possible from the internal evidence of the Suktas themselves, the interpretation of each symbol and image and the right psychological function each of the gods. A firm, and not a fluctuating sense, founded on good philological justification and fitting naturally into the context wherever it occurs, must be found for each of the fixed terms of the Veda." (Vol. X. p. 32). After having given a serious thought to such problems, Aurobindo has formulated his "psychological theory" and. has tried to explain the mystic reality behind such terms as Agni, Varuna Mitra, the Asvins, the Maruts, Indra, the Viśve- devas, Sarasvati and her consorts, oceans and Rivers, the Seven Rivers or the Sapta-Sindhu, the Dawn, Cow and Angiras, the lost Sun and the lost Cows, the Angirasa Rișhis, the Seven- headed thought, svar and dasagvas, the Pitrs, the Hound of the Heaven, the Sons of Darkness, and Dasyus and the conquest over them.

Aurobindo took to the comparative study of Dravidian languages and Sanskrit, and in this connection, he says, "It did not take long to see that the Vedic indications of a racial division between Aryans and Dasyus and the identification of the latter with the indigenous Indians were of a far flimsier character than I had supposed. But far more interesting to me was the discovery of a considerable body of profound psychological thought and experience lying neglected in these ancient hymns. And the importance of this clement increased in my eyes when I found first, that the mantras of the Veda illuminated with a clear and exact light psychological experiences of my own for which I had found no sufficient explanation, either in European psychology or in the teachings of Yoga or of Vedanta, so far as I was acquainted with them, and secondly, that they shed light on obscure passages and ideas of the Upanisads to which, previously, I could attach no exact meaning and gave at the same time a new sense to much in the Puranas." (Vol. X. p. 37)

I shall not enter here into the details, which my readers could read in the original writings of Aurobindo (See The Secret of the Veda, Centenary Library Edition Vol. 10, 1972). renderings arrived at by I shall be satisfied with quoting a few of the psychological Aurobindo of the Vedic terms:

Term (Psychological Sense)

Rtam (Truth),

Dhi (Thought or understanding ),

Raya (Spiritual felicity),

Vāja (Homogeneous totality of thought),

Yajna (Action, internal or external, consecrated to gods),

Yajamāna ( Soul or personality as doer),

Gbrta (Thought or mind),

Indra (Illuminated mentality),

Indra's two horses (Double energies of mentality),

Guo or Cow (Light, as symbol of divine knowledge),

Asva or horse ( Vital energy),

Go-Aśva (Light-Energy companionship),

Bhūḥ Earth (Anna),

Bhuvaḥ (Middle-region [antariksa] präna),

Svah Heaven (manas),

Mahas (Vastness and truth),

[Vijnā] [Satyam-ṛtam-ṛtam-Bṛhat]),

Seven Worlds Seven psychological principles-Sat, Cit, Ananda, Vijnana, manas, prāņa anna, Death (Mrtyu) Moral state of matter, with mind and life involved in it.],

[Immortality (Amrta) [ State of infinite being, consciousness and bliss-Sat, chit- ananda.],

Rodast (Heaven and Earth) [Mind and Body.]

In this context, Aurobindo further writes, "The Vedic deities are names, powers, personalities of the Universal Godhead and they represent each some essential puissance of the Divine Being. They manifest the cosmos and are manifest in it. Children of Light, Sons of the Infinite, they recognize in the soul of man their brother and ally and desire to help and increase him by themselves increasing in him so as to possess his world with their light, strength and beauty. The Gods, call man to a divine companionship and alliance; they attract and uplift him to their luminous fraternity, invite his aid and offer them against the Sons of Darkness and Division, Man in turn calls the gods to his sacrifice, offers to them his swiftness and his strengths, his clarities and his sweetness,-milk and butter of the shining cow, distilled juices of the Plant of Joy, the Horse of the Sacrifice, the cake and the wine, the grain for the God-Mind's radiant coursers. He received them into his being and their gifts into his life, increases them by the hymn and the wine and forms perfectly,- as a smith forges iron, says the Veda, their great and luminous godheads." (Hymns to the Mystic Fire, Vol. XI, p. 30).

Whilst Dayanand's concept of the Vedic texts is very much the same as the concept of -Aurobindo, yet there are essential differences too. Dayanand's concept leads to pure monotheism in which the Supreme Self may be addressed. recalled or invoked with various names according to His qualities, characteristics, functions and attributes. He is one, though known by various names. His names are not meaningless ; the etymology of the word directly appears to refer to the reason why God is known by that particular name. According to Aurobindo each deity represents "Some essential puissance of the same Divine Being". This concept of Aurobindo, whilst on on hand possesses the kernel of monotheism it leads in subsequent steps to monistic, patheistic and even polytheistic views of the cosmos. Whilst commenting on Dayanand's Vedic monotheism, Aurobindo writes "Such a theory is obviously, difficult to establish. The Rigveda itself, indeed asserts (Rv. I. 164.46) that the gods are only different names and expressions of one universal Being, who in His own ality transcends the universe; but from the language of the hymns we are compelled to perceive in the gods not only different names, but also different forms, powers and personalities of the one Deva. The monotheism of the Veda includes in itself also the monistic, pantheistic and even polytheistic views of the cosmo and is by no means the trenchant and simple creed of modern theism. It is only by a violent struggle with the text that we can force on it a less complex aspect." (The Secret of the Veda, Vol. X. p. 30).

It is difficult to comment on the two concepts of the Vedic gods, propounded by the two great masters of the soil, Dayanand and Aurobindo. Aurobindo treads on dangerous grounds, as much as his mysticism may lead to the worst kinds of superstitions (of course, be takes a rational view), and may deteriorate into polytheistic pantheism. Aurobindo's symbolic mysticism is truly applicable to about a few thousands of the Vedic verses, with strenuous stretch of imagination; his interpretations answer to the needs of mental and super mental realms; Dayanand saw in the Vedic texts a wider application to the multi purposeful life; Dayanand's interpretations embrace in themselves the viewpoints of Aurobindo, and simultaneously provide a little beyond his realm too on both sides of the spectrum.

Note: F. Maxmuller, as a true Christian, was convinced of the fact, that his translations of the Vedic Hymns based on the interpretations of Sayana and other scholists, would take away the faith of Indians from the Vedas, and in consequence, Indians, would also become Christians in due course. We are told that he wrote a letter to his wife in 1868, in which he remarked thus, whilst he was busy in editing the Rigveda:

"I hope I shall finish that work and I feel convinced, though I shall not live to see it, yet this edition of mine (of the Rigveda) and the translation of the Vedas will hereafter tell to a great extent on the fate of India and on the growth of millions of Souls in that country. It is the root of their religion, and to show them what the root is, I feel sure, the only way of uprooting all that has been sprung from it during the last three thousand years."

Of course, the result has been otherwise. Due to Dayanand and people who have shared his views, the Vedas are much more popular in Indian Society today than in Maxmuller's days, and their teachings have started exercising a dynamic impact on our society.