Tuesday, June 28, 2022

The Long Arc of Islam


The Long Arc of Islam

Pankaj Saxena

Any idea which is 1400 hundred years long has to be understood only in long civilizational arcs. Just as India is a civilizational nation, Islam is a civilizational force and has to be understood in those long terms. Muslims are fond of saying that “Islam has never lost.” Sadly, except in one case, this is true. But what does that mean? That Islamic armies never lost? That the enemies never won against them in battlefield? That they never had bad years or decades? No. It is not like this.
After the initial burst out of Arabia after the death of the Prophet the Islamic armies reached India’s gates in the East and knocked at Europe’s doors in Spain in the West. This happened because two great empires of those times almost instantly fell against Islam. Persia, one of the greatest empires of the time, fell within a matter of 20 years. The Sassanids ruling Persia were tired with their constant wars with the Byzantium empire. In just 20 years the empire was gone, Zoroastrianism declining and Persia was converting to Islam.
One thing to focus here: Islamic armies never stopped at political, economic and social victory. For them a victory was not victory until it was also religious. So conversions ALWAYS had to follow. This they achieved in many ways. Forced conversions at the point of the sword. Implementing Jizyah tax – which was the tax of being non-Muslim under Islam. You could stay non-Muslim only by paying a great Jizyah tax which was sometimes as much as 75%. This decided that most would eventually convert.
Conversions were the most sacred duty of a Muslim. It was the point of Jihad, to bring the light of Islam to all heathens. They could choose death, conversion to Islam or Jizyah, which would earn Islam a lot & eventually lead to conversion of the subject population. Once in, there was no way out. You could enter Islam, but you could never leave Islam. Punishment for leaving Islam was death. This is very important. In this way Islam ONLY ALWAYS GREW. Its graph, even when slow would never go down. It had various other implications.
This law of ‘Always In, Never Out’ meant that while the opponents of Islam need to keep winning repeatedly and endlessly until Islam is gone, Islam only needed to win once. Because after winning once they would convert opponents to Islam. And the outsider would become insider. This had a profound implication on the history of the world. This ensured that while non-Muslims needed to win eternally, Islam needed to win only once; so the Muslims just had to keep trying; and once they won they would convert the defeated to Islam, forever.
Once the defeated society was converted they became a part of Islam and started attacking others with the same or more zeal. Once defeated, they would become the ambassadors and soldiers of Islam. This is how Arabs, then Persians, then Turks spread Islam. Near Persia, in the West, there was Byzantium. Just like Persia, Byzantium also lost spectacularly to Islamic armies but unlike Persia it didn’t lose its capital Constantinople. But the way to the West was open.
Islam reached Spain by traversing the African Mediterranean coast. Except former Egyptian territories there were no other major countries on the way. This further helped Islam as it completely managed to change their religion, culture as well as language. After the initial six or seven decades of an unprecedented expansion by Islamic armies, its success halted at the gates of India which it could not penetrate. The question comes now: these armies must also have been defeated sometime. Did Islam lose then? No it did not.
When Islamic armies ruled non-Muslim populations it was the non-Muslims populations who converted to Islam. But what happened when non-Muslim kings ruled Islamic populations? Did the non-Muslim pagans also convert Muslims back to paganism? It turns out no. The classic case is the utter defeat and destruction of the Abbassid Islamic Caliphate by the Mongols in the Siege of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 CE. Hulagu utterly destroyed the Abbassid Caliphate once and forever and made genocide of Muslims in Baghdad.
It was the first dusk of Islamic power. Arabs and Persians were spent and a pagan-Buddhist Turco-Mongol power had completely destroyed their political and military power. But did that affect Islam badly in the long run? Not at all. It actually benefitted them. Hulagu Khan (Khan is a pagan title) was a pagan-Buddhist, but like most pagans he respected others’ ‘religions’, failing to recognize that Islam was not just another religion. It was a religion which wanted to end all religions.
So Hulagu Khan never tried to convert Muslims. Instead he gave them full freedom to practice their religion. So even while Islamic armies lost, and Muslims were killed en masse, Islam didn’t lose as the religious configuration of the Empire remained completely Islamic. Eventually Islam gained from Mongol occupation. Hulagu’s son & successor, Abaqa Khan, was a Buddhist. His son Arghun Khan, the next ruler, was also a very devout Buddhist. But even he didn’t try to convert his Muslim population.
Three generations of pagan rulers of Baghdad didn’t try to convert their Muslim subjects. And remember that no Muslim ruler would ever let go of a single opportunity to convert his subjects to Islam. Islam was biding its time until tide turned in its favor. Meanwhile, Muslim Ummah was constantly converting the Mongol court one by one to Islam: mostly saying that it will help the Mongol rulers rule Muslims if they followed Islam and once they did, exclusion of other faiths would follow. And Islam would become exclusive.
In typical pagan indifference and ignorance none of these Islamist machinations and change in demography of the Mongol court affected Arghun Khan. Arghun was a devout Buddhist but he never thought that Muslims should convert to Buddhism. Islam was biding its time. Islam’s time came when Arghun’s son Ghazan became the fourth major emperor of the Ill Khanate. Ghazan was pushed by Ibn Taymiyyah, one of the most intolerant, icnonoclastic and also the greatest Islamic scholars of the time to become Muslim. And he did.
In the prospect of expanding his empire and not having his Muslim subjects rebel against him, he turned Muslim. And ISLAM FINALLY WON. In this case, the Muslim subjects managed to convert a non-Muslim emperor after four generations of non-Muslim rulers. Islam wins when a Muslim army defeats a non-Muslim country: as the Muslim kings convert non-Muslims. Islam wins when a non-Muslim army defeats a Muslim country: as the Muslim population converts the non-Muslim king. And Islam wins in both cases.
Needless to say again, Islam only needs to win once. Iran, the successor of Ill Khanate, is still a 100% Muslim country. They never allowed any other religion to grow on their land.
So yes, the Islamic armies lose. Yes, their kingdoms and countries sometimes collaborate tactically with non-Muslim empires but always with the eye that Islam can not lose. Muslims cannot leave Islam. And non-Muslims should always be forced, appeased into Islam. They make temporary alliances with the pagans, heathens and non-Muslims and they have a judicial allowance for that and they call it Taqiyya (devout deception). They collaborate only so that in future they can convert the heathen.
In short, Islam only needs to win once. While non-Muslims need to keep winning forever if they want to stop Islam. This situation can change only when non-Muslims also seek to convert Muslims whenever the situation is favorable.

Sunday, June 26, 2022

The Founding Father of Surgery: Sushruta


The Founding Father of Surgery: Sushruta

Sushruta lived in India sometime between 600 to 1000 BC. His Sushruta Samhita is one of the most outstanding treatises in Indian medical literature, describes the ancient tradition of surgery in India.

He lived, taught and practiced in Varanasi, and is remembered especially for his innovative method of rhinoplasty.

Sushruta also commented on diabetes, referring to it as madhumeha; and is mentioned in ancient birch bark medical treatise Bower Manuscript discovered in China,dated around AD 450, and preserved in Bodleian Library in Oxford. He wrote that “any one wishing to acquire a thorough knowledge of anatomy, must prepare a dead body and carefully observe and examine all its parts”. As he wrote in Sanskrit, his text was only slowly disseminated to the west and other parts of the world. Around AD 360-350 the Buddhist scholar Vasubandhu revised and rewrote the original text in simplified language.

Sushruta developed surgical techniques for reconstructing noses, earlobes and genitalia. He developed the forehead flap rhinoplasty procedure that remains contemporary plastic surgical practice; also the otoplastic technique for reconstructing an earlobe with skin from the cheek. In Sushruta Samhita, he describes the free-graft rhinoplasty as follows:

Regarding anesthesia Sushruta wrote “Wine should be used before operation to produce insensibility to pain. The patient who has been fed, does not faint, and he who is rendered intoxicated, does not feel the pain of the operation.”

Sushruta is considered to be the first surgeon to have removed cataracts, describing varieties of cataracts along with the depression method of couching by the anterior root.

A.O. Whipple wrote “All in all Sushruta must be considered the greatest surgeon.” And in his short history of medicine Ackernecht he wrote ”There is little doubt that plastic surgery in Europe which flourished in medieval Italy is a direct descendant of classical Indian surgery.”

Information Source:
Satish Saroshe's article (Sushruta: the ancient Indian surgeon) in Hektoen International

Thread on Mighty Pallava Empire


Thread on Mighty Pallava Empire

The history of Tamil Nadu saw the rise & fall of many empires. One among them is the Pallavas who ruled the south, with Kanchipuram as their capital from 275 CE to 897 CE. A dynasty that has left its marks still on the whole face of Mahabalipuram.

Derives its name from the Sanskrit word “Pallava” which means “a tender leaf or new shoot” and like a germinating plant it spread its branches all across ancient Indian history.

The Pallavas have a very controversial origin story. Some historians think that they of Naga origin & came to settle in Tondaimandalam region near Madras, while some others say that they are a descendant of a Chola prince & Naga princess of Manipallavam, which is near Sri Lanka as mentioned in the Manimekalai Epic. Another guess is that they worked as officials under Satavahana rulers and later they established their reign. The origin of this dynasty has been debated by scholars for a long time.

Unlike the story of the genesis of this empire, the story of their reign is quite clear from all the granthas that have been discovered over time.
The various paintings, sculptures & plates that have been devoted to their history & culture have enlightened us through their art & languages of Tamil and Prakrit. The story is quite fascinating and starts with Vishnugopa II getting defeated by Samudragupta.

It is his son, Simhavishnu who is the known founder of the Pallava dynasty and who was also quite an efficient and strong ruler. He was also known to recapture Kanchi, their once-lost capital from the Cholas.

After the death of Simhavishnu, started the reign of Mahendravarman I,
the Pallava ruler who first signed his name in history with the construction of famous cave temples at Mahabalipuram. He was a great patron of art, culture & architecture. He started a new form of Dravidian architecture which has been called the “Mahendra style”.

The famous architectural monuments like Varaha Cave Temple, The Mahabalipuram Lighthouse, Kokarneshwarar temple etc were all constructed during his reign. He also commissioned so many Siva temples in and around his kingdom. From his time, the capital of Pallavas was Kanchipuram.

However, like any other vast & prosperous empire, this one was also not out of the clutches of enmity and war. The Pandyas and Chalukyas were a constant threat and Mahendravarman died in the battle with Chalukya Pulakesi II and his son, Narasimhavarman I ascended the throne.

A young Narasimhavarman was filled with the blood of revenge as he took over his father’s kingdom. He worked diligently toward that goal & finally defeated Pulakesi and took over the Chalukya capital of Vatapi, taking the title of “Vatapikonda”. He was also known for vanquishing the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas out of the kingdom. The king was not only known for his valiant qualities on the battlefield. He continued the patronage of art and architecture from his father’s time and built the Kailasnatha temple in Kanchi & Shore temple in Mahabalipuram.

The great Sanskrit writer Dandin was his court poet & great saints like Appar, Tirugnanasambandar, Siruthondar lived during his reign. When Hiuen Tsang visited his kingdom, he found the people happy. The crops were in abundance & the king never lost a war.

Narasimhavarman was undoubtedly the best ruler of Pallava dynasty. He was given the biruda of Mahamalla, meaning “great warrior” which is why Mahabalipuram is also called Mamallapuram. The multi-faceted ruler had a strong involvement in Sri Lankan politics as well.

Despite the political brawl over land with so many strong opponents, the Pallava kingdom extended from the northern part of Andhra Pradesh in the north to Trichy in the south.

Art, paintings, and scriptures were of great importance during this dynasty as was architecture. The languages were mostly Tamil, Sanskrit, and Prakrit and they also developed their own Pallava script which later on became the grantha.

The great empire met its downfall when the Cholas and Chalukyas started invading the kingdom to avenge their past.The dynasty declined when King Vijayachola finally defeated Aparajitavarman in 890 CE. The stories of the Pallava Dynasty can still be witnessed in the sculptures, temples and beautiful architecture of Mahabalipuram to this day..

Thursday, June 23, 2022

Jizyah in India – Jizyah Series – Part 5


Jizyah in India – Jizyah Series – Part 5

Pankaj Saxena

Jizyah was allowed to Hindus in special circumstances. Yes, even a punitive tax was considered a boon for Hindus by Muslims, because Hindus were ‘filthy idolaters’ for them and considered only death or conversion to Islam.

It was impossible to kill all of Hindus, who were in crores. So Jizyah was allowed to them. Muhammad bin Qasim started with it in Sindh in early 8th century. And from him to Aurangzeb almost every Islamic ruler kept imposing Jizyah on Hindus, barring Akbar.

The Qaḍi of Alauddin Khalji wrote: “'If the Jizyah-collector asks a Hindu for silver, the latter should offer gold in all humility. If the collector wishes to spit into his mouth, the latter should open his mouth without demur, so as to enable the former to spit into it.”

Firoz Shah Tughlaq wrote that because of Jizyah, “'the Hindus thronged in clusters after clusters and groups after groups and were glorified by the glory of Islam. And likewise to this day of ours, they come from far and wide, embrace Islam, and Jizyah is off from them.”

 Aurangzeb reimposed it after Akbar had abolished it and Jehangir and Shahjahan had followed him. But even then local Muslim princes kept levying Jizyah. Aurangzeb restarted it. When Hindus opposed the imposition of Jizyah he had them trampled with elephants.

He also demanded that the Hindu Dhimmi should carry Jizyah in his hand and come on foot. He should pay it standing, while the Muslim Jizyah collector is sitting. His hand should be below that of the collector who should snatch it from him, saying ‘Pay Jizyah, O Dhimmi!’

Clearly the goal was to humiliate the Hindu so much that ultimately he would convert to Islam. In Aurangzeb’s reign, even roaming mendicants and sannyasins had to pay it. Dr. Harsh Narain assesses that it was Jizyah which led to conversions of Hindus to Islam in India.

Reference (Diya' ad-Din Barani, Tarikh-i Firozshahi, Sayyid Athar Abbas Rizwi, selected Hindi tr., in his Khalji-Kalina Bharata, Aligarh, 1955, p. 70.)

(Firoz Shah Tughluq, FuthuHat-i Firozshahi, ed. by Shaikh Abdur Rashid, Aligarh, 1954, pp. 1617.) 




प्रजापति महायज्ञ सीकर में भजनोपदेशकों की भूमिका

 प्रजापति महायज्ञ सीकर में भजनोपदेशकों की भूमिका

बसंत पंचमी गुरुवार 11 फरवरी 1932 ई . ( विक्रम संवत् 1989 ) को झुंझुनू में जाट महासभा का विशाल प्रथम महा अधिवेशन हुआ । जलसे की स्वागत् समिति का स्वागताध्यक्ष पन्ने सिंह देवरोड़ को बनाया गया । जलसे का सभापति रिसालदार रिछपाल सिंह दिल्ली को बनाया । हाथी पर जुलूस निकाला गया । जलसे में जाने वालों के हाथों में ज्यादातर लाठियां थी । कुछ के पास बरछी , तलवारें थी । कुछ अन्य व फौजी सरदारों के पास बन्दूख व पिस्टल थी । इस जलसे की हाजरी करीब एक लाख थी । ' उस वक्त तक इतना बड़ा नर - नारियों का जुलूस न कभी इलाके में निकला था , न देखा था और न सुना था । इस सभा को संबोधित करते हुए आई.जी. पुलिस एफ . एस . यंग ने कहा था " जाट एक बहुत बहादुर कौम है । " इस अधिवेशन के बाद नई प्रेरणा से नई शक्ति का उदय हुआ और प्रत्येक स्त्री पुरुष में समाज के उत्थान के लिए कुछ कर गुजरने की प्रबल इच्छा का प्रादुर्भाव हुआ । इस जलसे से इलाके में बहुत जागृति हुई । जाट जाति की प्रतिष्ठा , मान और उच्चता का भान जातीय बन्धुओं व अन्य लोगों को हुआ । झुंझुनू जाट महासभा के अधिवेशन से प्रभावित होकर 1933 ई . में खण्डेलावाटी जाट सभा की स्थापना हुई और अधिवेशन बुलाया गया । चौधरी लादूराम रानीगंज वाले ने अपने खर्चे से पांच पाठशालाएं शुरू करवाई जागीरदारों और किसानों में लगान को लेकर वर्षों तक संघर्ष चला । प्रजापति महायज्ञ की सफलता के लिए अक्टूबर 1933 ई . में पलथाना में एक सभा बुलाई गई । इस सभा में यज्ञ समिति और उप समितियों का गठन करना था ।
सीकर ठिकाने ने मिटिंग को असफल बनाने के लिए ऊंट सवार सिपाहियों को सैंकड़ों हथकड़ियों समेत पलथाना भेजा परंतु वे कुछ भी नहीं कर सके और वापस लौट गए । यज्ञ के लिए घी और धन इकटठा करना बहुत बड़ा कार्य था । यह कार्य भजनोंपदेशकों को सौंपा गया । प्रसिद्ध भजनोपदेशक ठा . हुकमसिंह , ठा . भोलाराम और साथी सूरजमल गोठड़ा को इस दल के मुखिया नियुक्त किये गये । जो अपनी टोलियों के साथ गांव - गांव और घर - घर से घी और धन इकट्ठा कर यज्ञ स्थल सीकर पहुंचाते थे ।
गांव- गांव में टोलियां बनाकर प्रचार :
भजनोपदेशकों ने गांवों में खूब प्रचार किया । ठाकुर भोला सिंह , हुकमसिंह , घासीराम , पं . दत्तूराम , पं . सांवलप्रसाद , सूरजमल साथी गोठड़ा , हनुमानदास स्वामी आदि ने मिलकर जागृति पैदा की । वे गांव - गांव घूमते थे । भजनों का मुख्य विषय समाज में व्याप्त बुराईयों को समाप्त करना एवं जाटवीरों में जागृति पैदा करना था । भजनोदेशकों ने जाट जाति को वीर कौम के रूप में प्रतिस्थापित करने के लिए अनेक भजन गाये । ' गांवों में जो भजन गाये जाते थे और उनका जो गहरा प्रभाव पड़ा उनका उल्लेख यहां करना अत्यंत उपयोगी है । सीकर प्रजापति महायज्ञ के लिए गांव - गांव , ढाणी - ढाणी में दत्तूराम का यह भजन गाया जाने लगा - -
माघ मास की बसंत पंचमी , जाट महायज्ञ तैयार चालो देखण ने । टेक ।।
जाटों ने तजी फूट पापणी,कर आपस में प्यार चालो देखण ने ।।1।।
पलथाने में सभा हुई,आये थे जाट सरदार चालो देखण ने ||2||
सेर घृत घर पती लगायो , ऊपर आना चार चालो देखण नै।।3 ।।
दस नग रसीद बुक छपवाया,नोटिस पांच हजार चालो देखण ने ॥4 ॥
मास्टर चन्द्रभान सिंह वर्मा,पाया मंत्री का अधिकार चालो देखण ने॥5 ॥
मैं चालू यज्ञ देखबा,बनो पति जनेऊधार चालो देखण ने।।6।।
वहां पंडित डारे आहूति , पति आ रही अजब बहार चालो देखण ने ॥7॥
वहां कर ऊंचासा चौंतरा ,बड़ा सजवाया पंडार चालो देखण ने॥8 ॥
ऊपर ताण चांदनी ,बंधवाये बन्दनवार चालो देखण ने॥9॥
चलो हवन सुगंधी तो प्रीतम बड़ी आवेगी महकार चालो देखण ने ॥10॥
आयु बढ़े सब रोग कटे ,वहां पुष्ट होता बीमार चालो देखण ने॥11॥
जो कोई देखण ना जायेगा ,तो लेगा जन्म बिगार चालो देखण ने।।12
जो कोई इस यज्ञ को देखे ,मिले आनन्द अगम अपार चालो देखण ने।।13।
वेद बचें और हवन बने ,अब चलो संग परवार चालो देखण ने।।14 ।।
" दत्तूराम " पारास्वर , वहां गावेगा राग मल्हार चालो देखण ने ' ॥15 ॥
लेखक - डॉ पितराम सिंह गोदारा
पुस्तक - शेखावाटी में स्वाधीनता आंदोलन व जन आंदोलन में भजनोपदेशकों की भूमिका
प्रस्तुति - अमित सिवाहा

Wednesday, June 22, 2022

Dhimmis & Jizyah – Jizyah Series – Part 4


Dhimmis & Jizyah – Jizyah Series – Part 4

Pankaj Saxena 

Non-Muslims, ‘protected’ by paying Jizyah, were called Dhimmis/ Jimmis. Muslims, taking tax, were called ‘Jimmedar’. This is the origin of word ‘Jimmedar’; it means a Muslim who is responsible for collecting religious tax from Hindus.

Dhimmis/ Zimmis were not citizens. They had no rights. Neither political nor fundamental. They were never appointed to any position of power. They could never exercise voting of any kind. They could never lead an army.

 Many disabilities were inflicted on Dhimmis. They could not:

1) Couldn’t build new temples.

2) Couldn’t repair temples destroyed by Muslims.

3) Couldn’t sound bells in their temples to inconvenience Muslims. 

4) Couldn’t display their dharmic symbols openly.

5)  The Dhimmi had to open his house, shop and temple to any Muslims who wished to stay.

6) Couldn’t do their chants inside their own temples loudly.

7) Couldn’t stop any relative from converting to Islam.

8) Couldn’t dress like a Muslim.

9) Could not ride horses or camels. 

10) Could not use Arabic.

11) Could not buy or keep arms of any kind.

12) Could not make their houses higher than Muslims. 

13) Had to stand up for a Muslim in a public gathering.

These terms were meant for 1) The suppression and disappearance of the religion & culture of non-Muslims; 2) Constant insult of non-Muslims to encourage them to convert to Islam 3) To make them incapable of fighting or standing up to Islamic rulers.

We see that a lot of these infirmities are still upon the Hindu society. The government funds minority institutions but not Hindu ones. Muslim majority areas force the Hindus to stop displaying their religious symbols in public. Muslims stock arms while Hindus don’t & can’t.

Muslim lawmakers cite a letter by Caliph Umar as a document to implement Jizyah in subsequent years and other places. The letter allows Christians of Damascus to continue their religion by paying Jizyah. Let us go read the terms in full.

'not to build in Damascus and its environs church, convent, chapel, monk's hermitage;

'not to repair what is dilapidated of our churches nor any of them that are in Muslim quarters;

'not to withhold our churches from Muslims stopping there by night or day;

'to open doors to the traveller and the wayfarer;

'not to shelter there nor in our houses a spy, not to hide one who is a traitor to the Muslims;

'to beat the naqus only gently in our churches;

'not to display a cross on them;

'not to raise our voices in prayer or chanting in our churches;

'not to carry in procession a cross or our book;

'not to take our Easter or Psalm Sunday processions;

 'not to raise our voices over our dead, nor to show fires with them in the markets of the Muslims, nor bring our funerals near them;

'not to sell wine nor parade idolatry in companies of Muslims;

'not to entice a Muslim to our religion nor invite him to it;

'not to keep slaves who have been the property of Muslims;

'not to prevent any relative from entering Islam if he wishes it;

'to keep our religion wherever we are;

'not to resemble the Muslims in wearing the qalansuwah (hat of a Greek priest), the turban, shoes, nor in the parting of the hair, nor in the way of riding;

'not to use their language nor be called by their names;

'to cut the hair in front and divide our forelocks;

'to tie the zunnar round our waists;

'not to engrave Arabic on our seals;

'not to ride our saddles;

'not to keep arms nor put them in our houses nor wear swords;

'to honour Muslims in their gatherings to guide them on the road, to stand up in public meetings when they wish it

'not to make our houses higher than theirs;

'not to teach our children the Koran;

'not to be partners with a Muslim except in business;

'to entertain every Muslim traveller in our customary style and feed them in it three days;

'We will not abuse a Muslim and he who strikes a Muslim has forfeited his rights.' 

You can see that this letter decided most of the disabilities that were inflicted upon non-Muslims paying Jizyah.


Tuesday, June 21, 2022

सिंध पर अरब आक्रमण की असफलताएं


सिंध पर अरब आक्रमण की असफलताएं

इस्लाम के पैगम्बर मोहम्मद की 632 ई में मृत्यु के उपरांत अरब की संगठित इस्लामिक सेना ने तत्कालीन समय मे सबसे ताकतवर मानी जाने वाली Byzantine एम्पायर के फिलिस्तीन और सीरिया को महज 6 माह के भीतर 636-637 A.D. तक फतह हासिल कर लिया था । उसके बाद पर्सिया के Sassanid Empire जिसकी ताकत के किस्से दुनिया भर मशहूर है , जो साइरस और डेरियस जैसे बेहद ताकतवर राजाओ के शासन कe कारण प्रसिद्ध हुआ करते था , परन्तु अरब की इस्लामिक सेना ने Sassanid Empire ( आज का इराक , ईरान और खुरासान) को भी 637 ई में परास्त कर दिया था ।
इस प्रकार कुछ ही वर्षो में पूरा पर्सियन एम्पायर नेस्तनाबूद हो गया । उसके बाद 643 ई में दुनिया की सबसे ताकतवर माने जा रही अरब खलीफा के अंडर में अरबी सेना ने भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप को जीतने का लक्ष्य रखा । यहाँ एक महत्वपूर्ण तथ्य जोड़ना चाहूंगा अति महत्वपूर्ण है , कि उस समय तुर्किश भाषा बोलने वाले मंगोलिया ,बुखारा , ताशकन्द और समरकन्द को भी अरबी सेना ने 650 ई में फतह कर लिया था ।
बाइजेंटाइन एम्पायर के पश्चिम में इजिप्ट (मिश्र) भी 640 ई में मुस्लिम अरब द्वारा परास्त किया जा चुका था । अरब की सेना उत्तरी अफ्रीका से होते हुए इंदुलुसिया (स्पेन) में 709 ई में उसे भी फतह कर लिया था ।
एक इस्लामिक सेना की यह विजय कोई साधारण या आसान नही थी । एक बार पराजय के बाद ही विभिन्न पहचान , संस्कृति और भाषा वाली इन तुर्क , पारसी , सीरियन , बर्बर्स (अफ्रीकी जाती) कौम के लोग इस्लाम मे बहुत ही कम समय मे तलवार के दम पर मतांतरित कर दिए गए और उनकी परम्परा , संस्कृति और भाषा का अरबीकरण कर दिया गया ।
आपको जानकर आश्चर्य होगा कि इसी इस्लामिक सेना ने भारत पर 69 वर्षो तक हमला किया और वे सीमा पार करने में भी असफल रहे । उसके बाद लगभग 300 सालो तक उन्हें भारत के उत्तर और पश्चिम के विभिन्न क्षेत्रों से जोरदार प्रतिरोध सहना पड़ा ।
सर्वप्रथम खलीफा उमर बिन खत्ताब के समय मे अरबो की समुद्री सेना ने महाराष्ट्र के समुद्र तट थाने और गुजरात के तट भरूच पर 634 - 644 ई तक हमला किया जिसका भारतीय सेना ने जबरदस्त प्रतिकार किया , अरबो को सिंध के देवल में भी इसी प्रतिकार का सामना करना पड़ा , जब अरब सेनापति Mughirah परास्त होकर युद्ध में मारा गया । इसके बाद खलीफा उमर बिन खत्ताब ने हिंदुस्तान के सिंध प्रांत के मकरान पर चढ़ाई करने के लिए दूसरी सेना भेजने का निर्णय लिया । लेकिन उसे इराक के गवर्नर का सुझाव दिया कि ,
'उन्हें अब हिन्द पर चढ़ाई के विषय मे नही सोचना चाहिए' ।
इसके उपरांत अरब के भीतर इस्लाम के अगले खलीफा हजरत उस्मान ने भी 646-656 ई तक इस सुझाव का पालन किया , और अपनी सेना को सिंध पर किसी भी तरह की जमीनी या समुद्री हमला करने की जहमत नहीं उठाई ।
इसके बाद अरबो के चौथे खलीफा और शियाओ के पहले इमाम हजरत अली ने भारत को फतह करने के लिए 660 ई में सेनाये भेजी परन्तु उनके सिंध पर भेजी गई सेना का भी भारतीय सेना ने किकान की जमीन पर वध किया , अंतत्वोगत्वा इस्लाम के चौथे खलीफा हजरत अली भी हिन्द और सिंध की फतह की खबर सुने बिना ही मर गए ।
उसके बाद 661 - 680 ई तक अरब के अगले खलीफा हजरत माविया ने भी 6 बार सिंध पर जमीनी सेना भेजी । इन 6 युद्धों में भी अरबो को पराजय मिली , सिवाय 6 वे युद्ध के जिसमे भारत के सिंध प्रांत का मकरान का हिस्सा 680 ई में फतह कर लिया गया था ।
इसके बाद 28 वर्ष तक अरबो ने भारत पर हमला करने की कोई भी जहमत न उठा पाई ।
अब अरब अक्रांताओ ने भारत पर अगला हमला 708 ई में देबल में किया । परन्तु इसमें भी अरब कमांडर इन चीफ उबैदुल्लाह और बुदैल मारे गए और अरब सेना भाग खड़ी हुई ।
अगली बार जब हज्जाज बिन यूसुफ इराक का गवर्नर बना तो उसने खलीफा से हिंदुस्तान पर हमला करने की अनुमति मांगी , लेकिन खलीफा ने उसे लिखकर भेजा कि हमे हिन्द फतह करने की योजना छोड़ देनी चाहिए क्योंकि हमारी सेना कई बार उन पर चढ़ाई करती है , और प्रत्येक बार हमारी हार होती है जिसमे भारी संख्या में मुसलमान मारे जाते है , तो कृपया इस प्रकार के किसी भी योजना को अपने मन निकाल दो ,
लेकिन हज्जाज बड़ा ही अक्रामक साम्राज्यवादी मानसिकता का था । उसने 4 वर्षो तक एक मजबूत आर्मी को बनाने में लगाया , जो अब तक सिंध में भेजी गई सेनाओ से कहि ज्यादा ताकतवर थी ।
उसके बाद उसने अपने दामाद एव भतीजे मुहम्मद बिन कासिम को 712 ई में सिंध को फतह करने के लिए भेजा ।
हज्जाज ने कासिम से कहा कि, 'मैं अल्लाह की कसम खा कर कह रहा हु की मैं मेरे इराकी साम्राज्य का सम्पूर्ण धन इस आक्रमण में लगाने को तैयार हूं ।"
इस प्रकार मुहम्मद बिन कासिम ने हिंदुस्तानी सेना के जोरदार प्रतिरोध के बाद भी सिंध को फतह कर लिया उसके बाद 713 ई तक उसने संपूर्ण सिंध सहित मुल्तान पर भी कब्जा कर लिया , लेकिन भारतीय सेना के प्रतिरोध के बाद 714 ई में वह भाग खड़ा हुआ , जिसके बाद खलीफा के पास देबल से Salt Sea तक का ही हिस्सा हाथ आया , जो कि महज सँकरी
समुद्री सीमा मात्र थी ।
इसके बाद अरबो ने पुनः सिंध पर हमला किया और पूर्व में राजपूताने से उज्जैन और दक्षिण में भरूच की ओर बढ़े । लेकिन उनकी सफलता अल्प सामयिक ही रही । उनके आक्रमण पर दक्षिणी गुजरात (Lat) के चालुक्य राजकुमार पुलकेशिन अवनीश जनस्राय ने प्रतिरोध किया ।
738 ई नवसारी शिलालेख के अनुसार पुलकेशिन ने उस अरब सेना को पराजित किया जिसने सिंध , कच्छ , सौराष्ट्र , कावाटोका , मौर्य और गुर्जर राजवंश को परास्त किया था ।
इसके बाद राजकुमार पुलकेशिन अपने गृह नगर नवसारी वापस लौटे , जहाँ उनका भव्य तरीके से स्वागत किया गया और उन्हें दक्षिणापथ साधिता (Solid Piller Of Dakshinapath) और अनिवर्तका निवार्त्तयी (the Repeller of the Unrepellable) की उपाधि से विभूषित किया गया ।
ग्वालियर शिलालेख के अनुसार , गुर्जर-प्रतिहार राजा भोज प्रथम को अरब इतिहासकार कीng of Jurg कहकर बुलाते है । अरब इतिहासकार लिखते है कि भारत के किसी भी राजा में कोई भी उतना बड़ा प्रतिद्वंदी नही था सिवाय भोज प्रथम के ।
इसके बाद अरब सेना उत्तर पश्चिम में पंजाब और कश्मीर की ओर भी बढ़े , लेकिन उन्हें वहां भी ललितादित्य मुक्तपीड़ा (724-760 ई ) द्वारा उन्हे परास्त होना पड़ा ।
इस युद्ध मे ललितादित्य का गठबंधन मध्य भारत के शासक यशोवर्मन के साथ था ।
10वी शताब्दी के अरब इतिहासकार , लिखते है कि खलीफा के पास भारत में केवल दो स्थान है एक मुल्तान और दूसरा उनकी राजधानी मनसुरा , जिसके कारण प्रतिहार राजाओ ने अरब के मुल्तानी राजकुमार पर जोरदार हमला किया । इस प्रकार मुल्तान भी अरबो के हाथ से निकल गया , सिवाय एक मंदिर के ।
अरब इतिहासकार अल इसतिखारी ने 951 ई में लिखा , कि मुल्तान में एक मंदिर था जो हिन्दुओ के द्वारा अत्यंत सम्मानित और पूजित था जहां पर हर वर्ष भारत के विभिन्न हिस्सों से तीर्थयात्री पूजा उपासना के लिए आते थे । जब भारतीयों ने मुल्तान में अरबो पर हमला कर मूर्ति को मुक्त करा ना चाहा तो अरब आक्रमण करियो ने मूर्ति को तोड़ने व जलाने की धमकी दी । जिसके बाद हिन्दुस्तानियो ने उन्हें छोड़ दिया नही तो वे मुल्तान को तबाह कर देते ।
इस प्रकार 300 सालो के अनवरत आक्रमणों के बाद भी अरबो को केवल 2 स्थान ही प्राप्त हुए एक मुल्तान दूसरा मनसेरा , वह भी अरबो के मजहबी बुतशिकन राजनीति के कारण न कि युद्ध के ।
यहाँ सभी को एक बात को अपने मन मे अवश्य रखना चाहिए कि यह वो समय था जब अरब खिलाफत एम्पायर दुनिया की सबसे ताकतवर और विशाल थी , जिसने दुनिया की कई बड़ी ताकतवर साम्राज्यों को धूल में मिलाकर विश्व भूगोल से समूल नेस्तनाबूद कर दिया था, अर्थात् उसके बाद दुबारा उन स्थानों पर रहने वाले लोग अपने पुराने मजहब एव संस्कृति को नही लौट पाए , आज की भाषा मे कहु तो वहां सदा के लिए Complete Arab Hagemenoy स्थापित हो गई ।
वही दूसरी ओर विशाल ताकतवर अरब खिलाफ़ती सेना भारत के जिन सिंध और कोस्टल (समुद्र तटीय) राजाओ से लड़ रहे थे वे तो अरबो की विशालता के सामने बेहद बौने थे ।
इस तरह सिंध , पंजाब जैसे छोटे राज्यो के जिन भारतीय हिन्दू राजाओ ने जिस अलेक्जेंडर को धूल में मिलाकर वापस यूनान भेजा था , वह कथा भी अब पुरानी हो गई ।
और यह गाथा आज एक बार फिर इस आर्यावर्त के इतिहास में अमर हो गई ।
Ref -
(1) Heroic Hindu Resistance
to Muslim Invaders
(636 AD to 1206 AD) by Sitaram Goel
(2) Ram Gopal Misra, Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders up to 1206 A.D.
हिंदी अनुवादक एवं प्रस्तोता - हिमांशु शुक्ला